In this case study dedicated to Chinese style ceramic sherds excavated from archeological sites in East Africa, we have made use of multiple approaches. First, from a local viewpoint, the density of Chinese style ceramic sherds at a site may be used as a measurement tool to evaluate the degree of its involvement in long distance trade. Chinese-style ceramics travelled from the production sites in China and South-East Asia to East Africa, by passing successively from different regional networks, that formed the multi-partner global networks. Thus, the periodization of Chinese imports in East Africa appears to show that each phase appears to fall within a particular configuration of these successive trade networks. From the global context of Sino-Swahili trade, the inequitable nature of the cheap Chinese ceramics traded against highly valued African commodities should also be mentioned. Nevertheless, our study shows the powerful social symbolic of Chinese ceramics in the Swahili world. From the local lens, it is the phenomenon of a changing value of Chinese ceramics in the long-distance trade.
Art and visual culture: Medieval to modern
Shaw, Ian. The Oxford Timeline of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press.
On average, however, humans gained during the centuries in which the earth enjoyed of past shifts in average weather conditions dating back millions of years.  Fifteen thousand years later, around 10, B.C., the total had grown by the warm period could easily explain the population explosion that took place.
This introduction to the history of art and visual culture provides a broad overview of the major developments in western art between c. It is divided into three parts, each of which explores the concept and practice of art in a distinct historical period. We begin by considering the production and consumption of art from the Crusades through to the period of the Catholic Reformation. The focus is on art in medieval and Renaissance Christendom, but this does not imply that Europe was insular during this period.
The period witnessed the slow erosion of the crusader states in the Holy Land, finally relinquished in , and of the Greek Byzantine world until Constantinople fell to the Ottomans in Famously, Columbus made his voyage of discovery of the New World in Medieval Christendom could not but be aware of its neighbours. Trade, diplomacy and conquest connected Christendom to the wider world, which in turn had an impact on art. The luxury oriental fabrics painstakingly represented in paintings by Simone Martini c.
The vast trade networks of the Silk Roads carried more than just merchandise and precious commodities. In fact, the constant movement and mixing of populations brought about the widespread transmission of knowledge, ideas, cultures and beliefs, which had a profound impact on the history and civilizations of the Eurasian peoples. Travellers along the Silk Roads were attracted not only by trade but also by the intellectual and cultural exchange taking place in cities along the Silk Roads, many of which developed into hubs of culture and learning.
Science, arts and literature, as well as crafts and technologies were thus shared and disseminated into societies along the lengths of these routes, and in this way, languages, religions, and cultures developed and influenced one another.
Global Economic Outlook and Implications for Developing Countries. 49 of the changes would take place over or years rather than thousands or WTO Director-General Pascal Lamy has set the 21 July as the date for a My last point takes us back to where we started: the slowdown in economic growth.
The Commercial Revolution consisted of the creation of a European economy based on trade, which began in the 11th century and lasted until it was succeeded by the Industrial Revolution in the midth century. Beginning with the Crusades , Europeans rediscovered spices , silks , and other commodities rare in Europe. This development created a new desire for trade, and trade expanded in the second half of the Middle Ages roughly to AD.
Newly forming European states , through voyages of discovery , were looking for alternative trade routes in the 15th and 16th centuries, which allowed the European powers to build vast, new international trade networks. Nations also sought new sources of wealth and practiced mercantilism and colonialism. The Commercial Revolution is marked by an increase in general commerce, and in the growth of financial services such as banking, insurance and investing.
The term itself was used by Karl Polanyi in his The Great Transformation: ” Politically, the centralized state was a new creation called forth by the Commercial Revolution This kind of economy ran from approximately the 14th century through the 18th century. Raymond, and Peter Spufford indicate that there was a commercial revolution of the 11th through 13th centuries, or that it began at this point, rather than later. Italy first felt huge economic changes in Europe from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Typically there was:. In recent writing on the city states, American scholar Rodney Stark emphasizes that they married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.
The International Date Line, Explained
The history of international trade chronicles notable events that have affected the trade between various countries. In the era before the rise of the nation state , the term ‘international’ trade cannot be literally applied, but simply means trade over long distances; the sort of movement in goods which would represent international trade in the modern world. It included institutions and rules intended to prevent national trade barriers being erected, as the lack of free trade was considered by many to have been a principal cause of war.
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There is almost no area in which digital technology has not impacted me and my family’s life. I work more from home and have more flexibility and a global client base My wife has gone back to a graduate school program and is much About every five years I have to take our family tree back to the.
But the transport of goods and services along these routes dates back even further. The Persians also expanded the Royal Road to include smaller routes that connected Mesopotamia to the Indian subcontinent as well as northern Africa via Egypt. Alexander the Great , ruler of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia , expanded his dominion into Persia via the Royal Road. Parts of the thoroughfare were ultimately incorporated into the Silk Road.
The east-west trade routes between Greece and China began to open during the first and second centuries B. The Roman Empire and the Kushan Empire which ruled territory in what is now northern India also benefitted from the commerce created by the route along the Silk Road. The Silk Road routes included a large network of strategically located trading posts, markets and thoroughfares designed to streamline the transport, exchange, distribution and storage of goods.
From Seleucia, routes passed eastward over the Zagros Mountains to the cities of Ecbatana Iran and Merv Turkmenistan , from which additional routes traversed to modern-day Afghanistan and eastward into Mongolia and China. Silk Road routes also led to ports on the Persian Gulf, where goods were then transported up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Routes from these cities also connected to ports along the Mediterranean Sea, from which goods were shipped to cities throughout the Roman Empire and into Europe.
The First Silk Roads
Generally described as taking place from the 14th century to the 17th century, the Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature and art. Some of the greatest thinkers, authors, statesmen, scientists and artists in human history thrived during this era, while global exploration opened up new lands and cultures to European commerce.
The Renaissance is credited with bridging the gap between the Middle Ages and modern-day civilization.
During the early years of the United Nations, trade law was outside the centre of That includes rules of private international law, which back in This gathering, which is taking place at the generous invitation of UNCITRAL, can in Europe at the end of the nineteenth century to unify legal rules pertaining to personal.
Spice trade , the cultivation, preparation, transport, and merchandising of spices and herbs , an enterprise of ancient origins and great cultural and economic significance. Seasonings such as cinnamon , cassia , cardamom , ginger , and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 4, years ago. From time immemorial, southern Arabia Arabia Felix of antiquity had been a trading centre for frankincense , myrrh , and other fragrant resins and gums.
Arab traders artfully withheld the true sources of the spices they sold. To satisfy the curious, to protect their market, and to discourage competitors, they spread fantastic tales to the effect that cassia grew in shallow lakes guarded by winged animals and that cinnamon grew in deep glens infested with poisonous snakes. Whatever part the overland trade routes across Asia played, it was mainly by sea that the spice trade grew.
Arab traders were sailing directly to spice-producing lands before the Common Era. Ceylon Sri Lanka was another important trading point. In the city of Alexandria , Egypt , revenues from port dues were already enormous when Ptolemy XI bequeathed the city to the Romans in 80 bce. The Romans themselves soon initiated voyages from Egypt to India , and under their rule Alexandria became the greatest commercial centre of the world.
History of the Museum
From the 15th through 17th centuries, Europe sought to expand its power and riches through a rigorous exploration of the world. The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations, was a period in European history from the early 15th century to the early 17th century. During this period, Europeans engaged in intensive exploration and early colonization of many parts of the world, establishing direct contact with Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s earliest roots date back to in Paris, the Museum opened to the public at its current site on Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street. By the 20th century, the Museum had become one of the world’s great art centers. For four years, The Met Breuer exhibited global art of the twentieth and.
Key Concepts Vinnie’s online reading. Globalization Since the Fourteenth Century. The many meanings of the word “globalization” have accumulated very rapidly, and recently, and the verb, “globalize” is first attested by the Merriam Webster Dictionary in In considering the history of globalization, some authors focus on events since , but most scholars and theorists concentrate on the much more recent past. But long before , people began to link together disparate locations on the globe into extensive systems of communication, migration, and interconnections.
This formation of systems of interaction between the global and the local has been a central driving force in world history. Q: what is global? A: the expansive interconnectivity of localities — spanning local sites of everyday social, economic, cultural, and political life — a phenonmenon but also an spatial attribute — so a global space or geography is a domain of connectivity spanning distances and linking localities to one another, which can be portrayed on maps by lines indicating routes of movement, migration, translation, communication, exchange, etc.
Q: what is globalization? A: the physical expansion of the geographical domain of the global — that is, the increase in the scale and volume of global flows — and the increasing impact of global forces of all kinds on local life. Moments and forces of expansion mark the major turning points and landmarks in the history of globalization.
The History and Evolution of Retail Stores: From Mom and Pop to Online Shops
When you cross the IDL, the day and date change. If you cross it traveling westward, the day goes forward by one, and the date increases by one. If you cross it traveling eastward, the opposite occurs. The IDL is not a matter of international law, but it’s one of the few standards embraced globally.
For roughly the next hundred years, this northern region saw competition of varying but towards the end of the fifteenth century beaver wool began to be predominate. Wool felt was used for over two centuries to make high-fashion hats. Felt dates back to the nomads of Central Asia, who are said to have invented the.
For nearly as long as people have existed, they have been sharing, bartering, selling, and consuming resources. To trace the complete history of commerce back to its inception, we must travel to a time when wooly mammoths still walked the Earth. People exchanged cows and sheep in trade as far back as BC. The first proper currency extends as far back as BC in Mesopotamia.
The first retail stores take up the mantle a bit further down the line. By BC in ancient Greece, people had developed markets with merchants selling their wares in the Agora in the city center. These ruins are of an ancient Greek agora. People would come there not only to shop but to socialize and participate in government.
Flash forward a couple thousand years and we have our modern mammoths: retail giants like Walmart, Costco, and Target. At its simplest definition, retail is the sale of different goods and services to customers with the intention to make a profit. Retail includes selling through different channels, so items purchased in store and those purchased online both apply.
The definition of retail is expansive enough that it includes the traveling merchants of antiquity all the way to sprawling shopping malls, big-box stores and ecommerce platforms.
Global Commerce Has Taken Place For Hundreds Of Years Dating Back To The 15th Century
The Met The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s earliest roots date back to in Paris, France, when a group of Americans agreed to create a “national institution and gallery of art” to bring art and art education to the American people. The lawyer John Jay, who proposed the idea, swiftly moved forward with the project upon his return to the United States from France.
Under Jay’s presidency, the Union League Club in New York rallied civic leaders, businessmen, artists, art collectors, and philanthropists to the cause. On November 20 of that same year, the Museum acquired its first object , a Roman sarcophagus. On March 30, , after a brief move to the Douglas Mansion at West 14th Street, the Museum opened to the public at its current site on Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street.
Despite its role as the fictional site where Arthur’s international prowess and stature are in setting Arthur’s departure and return in this site of international contact have fifteenth-century readers while also providing a space for the very human untethered from the realities of global commerce and international politics.
The Renaissance is one of the most interesting and disputed periods of European history. Many scholars see it as a unique time with characteristics all its own. A second group views the Renaissance as the first two to three centuries of a larger era in European history usually called early modern Europe , which began in the late fifteenth century and ended on the eve of the French Revolution or with the close of the Napoleonic era Some social historians reject the concept of the Renaissance altogether.
Historians also argue over how much the Renaissance differed from the Middle Ages and whether it was the beginning of the modern world, however defined. The approach here is that the Renaissance began in Italy about and in the rest of Europe after and that it lasted until about It was a historical era with distinctive themes in learning, politics, literature, art, religion, social life, and music.
The changes from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance were significant, but not as great as historians once thought. Renaissance developments influenced subsequent centuries, but not so much that the Renaissance as a whole can be called “modern. The term “Renaissance” comes from the Renaissance.